Jimenez-Martin PJ, Melendez-Ortega A, Albers A and Schofield D. A Review of Tai Chi Chuan and parameters related to balance. European Journal of Integrative Medicine 2013; 5(6):469-475.
Background: Previous systematic reviews of the literature on tai chi and balance have focussed on one of two topics, either examining the quality of the research design, which has had great variance, or offering a general description of the studies included in the review. The current review is an analysis of the factors that affect balance.
Methodology: The authors searched seven data bases for publications relating to tai chi and balance between 1996 and 2012. The inclusion criteria were randomised trials written in English.
Results: A total of 397 articles were identified. Once the inclusion filter was added a total of 27 random controlled studies were eligible of analysis.
Conclusion: Analysis of the eligible papers confirmed that tai chi chuan practice improves both static and dynamic balance and has a positive effect on those factors that influence balance. No studies were found examining whether there was an improvement in balance in those individuals suffering from deterioration of brain function. One study examined the effects of tai chi chuan on people with vestibular problems.
Comment: The paper by Jimenez-Martin et al is one of the on-going looking at the effects of tai chi chuan on balance. Falls remain a significant healthcare problem around the world. Being able to elucidate the types of therapies that can help relieve this will have a dramatic effect not only on the individuals who are suffering from problems with balance, but, with the addition of tai chi chuan, also with the cost of treatment and care. This work should be better known throughout the healthcare community.
Cheon S-M, Chae B-K, Sung H-R, et al. The Efficacy of Exercise Programs for Parkinson’s Disease: Tai Chi versus Combined Exercise. Journal of Clinical Neurology. 2013; 9:237-243.
Background: Exercise if recommended for every patient suffering from Parkinson’s Disease. The effectiveness of different exercise regimes has not been clearly elucidated. The paper compares the effectiveness of tai chi chuan compared to combined stretching-strengthening exercise.
Methodology: Patients with mild to moderate Parkinson’s Disease were recruited to join either a combined stretching-strengthening group, the tai chi group or the non-interventional control group. The two activity groups met three times each week for 8 weeks. The tai chi group was led by a certified instructor based on the Tai-Chi-for-arthritis program. The combined exercise group did a mix of folk dancing, stepping and elastic band exercises. The functional fitness, Parkinson symptoms, Quality of Life and depression were evaluated.
Results: Both exercise groups showed better overall functional fitness following the 8 week intervention. However, the Parkinson group did not reveal any improvement in symptoms. Reviewing the Quality of Life aspects, the stretching-strengthening group did batter with regard to the domain while the tai chi group fared better in the emotional domain. The control group showed continued decline for Quality of Life and depression. Post-intervention assessment revealed that the Tai Chi group improved compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Exercise shows improved functional fitness and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease patients, with Tai Ch giving better results in the Quality of Life and functional fitness overall.
Comment: It is obvious from this study that exercise, in general, is beneficial for Parkinson’s patients. In particular, it was noted that the improvements between the two exercise groups differed, indicating that for these patients it may be most useful to combine both tai chi with some other form of exercise if there is to be a full range of improvements.
Ng L, Chiang LK, Tang R, et al. Effectiveness of incorporating Tai Chi in a pulmonary rehabilitation program for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in primary care- A pilot randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2014; 6:248-258.
Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major public health concern throughout the industrialized world. Studies have shown that pulmonary rehabilitation and tai chi chuan are beneficial for those patients suffering from this disease. This study was aimed at determining whether the self-efficacy and quality of life of CIPD patients who were active in a pulmonary rehabilitation program either with or without tai chi would improve.
Methodology: 192 COPD patients were recruited from primary care clinics. They were randomly assigned to wither the tai chi group or the pulmonary rehabilitation group. Both groups received 2 sessions/week for 6 weeks. Data collection was performed at baseline, 2 and 6 months post intervention.
Results: An intention to treat analysis was preformed revealing the groups were matched. Improvements were seen in exercise capacity, health status and self-efficacy within both groups at
6 months post-intervention. Though more favourable improvements were noted with the tai chi group, only the functional exercise capacity revealed a statistical improvement.
Conclusion: The effect of incorporating Tai Chi into pulmonary rehabilitation programs showed a modest benefit.
Comment: In the case of this research we see a modest improvement in exercise capacity of the tai chi participants. Given the very short time frame that this research project used it is quite conceivable that a longer study would reveal greater effects of tai chi chuan.
Nery RM, Zanini M, Ferrari JN et al. Tai Chi Chuan for Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Coronary Arterial Disease. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia. 2014; 102(6).
Background: Studies have shown that the practice of tai chi chuan can improve cardiac function in patients with heart disease. This paper is a systematic review of the literature assessing the effectiveness of tai chi chuan on patients suffering from coronary artery disease.
Methodology: The following databases were searched for papers in English, Portuguese and Spanish looking at the effects of tai chi chuan on patients with coronary artery disease; MEDLINE, ENBASE, LILACS and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials. Three independent investigators extracted and assessed the data for methodology and quality.
Results: The initial search found 201 papers dealing with tai chi and coronary artery disease. Following the critical review and analysis, 12 studies were considered for inclusion. After a full analysis, an additional 9 were excluded leaving three papers meeting the full criteria for inclusion. These studies included patients who had a confirmed diagnosis of coronary artery disease and were considered stable and able to exercise. Each study had a control group that either practiced a structured exercise or were given counselling for exercise. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 12 months.
Conclusion: The preliminary evidence based on the three studies used in this review suggests that tai chi chuan can be utilized as a form of cardiac rehabilitation for patients with stable coronary artery disease. The methodological problems and small sample sizes in each study indicate that further research into this area is needed.
Comment: Non-pharmacological approaches to many of the diseases we see are becoming an important consideration for care, especially self-care. This paper, while expressing reservations due to methodology and small sample size gives us an entrance into further, future research that most practitioner s can easily incorporate into their practices.
Dr. Mark J. Langweiler is a long time practitioner of Wu style Tai Chi Chuan and is a disciple of Sifu Wu Kwong Yu. He is currently a Senior Lecturer in Anatomy at the University of South Wales and chief instructor at the South Wales Wu Style Tai Chi Chuan Teaching Centre. He can be reached at